Compare Moral Reasoning Across Genders and Cultures

What is your definition of moral reasoning? Compare moral reasoning across genders. Explain cultural differences in moral reasoning in two cultures, with at least one being somewhere other than in North America.
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(1) What is your definition of moral reasoning?

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Moral reasoning relates to reasoning utilized in the formation of opinions associated with the duties and conduct of life (e.g., manners, customs) (Upham, 1850). Moral reasoning is the second division or kind of reasoning concerns opinions, actions and/or past events that do not come under the definition of demonstrative reasoning (relying on thought processes). According to Kohlberg (1981), everyone progresses orderly into distinct levels of moral reasoning from the lowest level to the highest, but not everyone reaches the higher levels of moral development. Kohlberg describes five stages of moral reason categorized into three distinct levels:

? Pre-conventional level: lowest level of moral reasoning involving two stages. The first (external control), which moral decisions are based on fear of punishment or the need to be obedient. The individual cannot relate to two points of view. During stage 2 (instrument relativist) the individual can separate own interest and points of view form others.
? Conventional level: intermediate level consists of conformity to standards of others, and conformity to the laws of society. The two stages at this level are interpersonal relation the ability to see shared interests. In Stage 4 (societal maintenance), the individual is able to distinguish society’s point of view from the interpersonal point of view found in stage3.
? Post conventional level: highest level of moral reasoning at step 5 (social contract) moral decisions are made after thinking about alternative and balances human rights and …

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